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Beautiful, varied in color and size, perennial flowers of unusual shape - bulbous irises. The irises are named after the ancient goddess of the rainbow.
Because the word "iris" in translation from Greek means the word "rainbow", and this translation can also mean a flower with a variety of color shades. But even in ancient Russia, irises were affectionately called "irises" or "cockerels". And from the bulbous irises, essential oil was extracted, which was used not only in cooking, but also for cosmetic purposes.
- Bulbous irises and their types
- Planting flowers
- Iris care
Bulbous irises and their types
Today there are many hundreds of diverse and modern types of irises, but in our climate 3 main types take root and grow beautifully, which are completely different in their shape and size:
- Iridodictium (net or bulbous iris)
- Xyphyum or else it is called English, Spanish or Dutch iris
Iridodictium is a perennial plant with a small, reticulated bulb with numerous, filamentous roots. The plant grows not tall up to 15 cm.
Single flowers have a delicate aroma and have 6 petals: 3 inner and 3 outer petals. Narrow leaves appear along with flowers, and by the end of flowering they grow up to 20 cm. The color of iridodictiums is varied from white to purple.
It blooms in early spring immediately after the winter snow melts for 2 to 3 weeks. This type of bulbous iris is best wintering in our area. In one place, bulbous irises iridodictiums can grow for more than 5 years.
The type of bulbous irises Juno is considered the rarest plant among bulbous irises. Blooms mainly in the first spring months (April-May). It has a fleshy, 3-5-scale bulb in a smooth shell. The roots are thick but can easily break off or come off.
Leaves are narrow, long, green in color, reaching a length of 20 cm. Flowers grow in axils of 2 flowers per peduncle. The color is mainly white-yellow or white-lilac. This type of iris loves warm, sunny and bright places, for example, it can be places such as Central or Asia Minor, or the warm Caucasus.
Xiphium (English, Spanish or Dutch iris) is the largest of the bulbous irises. The native land of the bulbous iris xyphyum is the Mediterranean mountains. It has a bulb similar to that of Juno, the same fleshy, smooth shell and not fused at the edges. The leaves are narrow and resemble the root system of the bulbous iris itself.
Blooms in the summer months from June to the end of July, the dormant period begins in September. The roots of xyphyum die off after flowering. The color range of flowers is different and can range from any pale or white color to any shade of blue with yellow specks, or from yellow to lilac-pink.
Bulbous irises are very fond of sunny, light and warm places, but at the same time they do not like extreme heat at all. Therefore, the first thing to do when planting irises in your garden plot or in a simple vegetable garden is to find the right and convenient place for the unearthly and amazing blooming of the flowers of the bulbous iris.
Any sunny, bright, warm place protected from the wind is suitable for this. Since tall irises need to be tied up in a draft, because they can easily break with a strong gust of wind. It can be a rock garden or any rocky garden, or even a quiet, ordinary, draft-free corner in any well-kept garden or vegetable garden.
The soil needs nutritious, loose, light, well-warmed, dry, drained. When planting bulbs of irises, the most correct depth is 8 cm, and the distance between flowers is approximately 10 cm to 15 cm. Depending on the size of the bulb itself (small or small bulbs can be planted closer, and large ones farther).
Correct planting of irises is the first thing to do so that the bud is at the level of the surface with the ground, and the leaves should stick up. And the root system itself cannot be covered with soil. The bulb must be disinfected before planting, and the old, dried roots must be cut off.
September is the best month for planting bulbous irises outdoors, but it is also possible to plant irises in pots as if at home if the bulbs were purchased in the spring. Because even in the old, old days, some types of bulbous irises were grown as a houseplant and only now in our modern world they began to use them, in the open ground for the beauty of a lawn, a garden, a vegetable garden, or as separately cut bouquets in a vase.
Like any other sun- and heat-loving plant, bulbous irises require the most gentle, attentive and specific care. Therefore, with proper planting, and in the future it is necessary and proper care, you can expect beautiful and beautiful flowers in any garden or vegetable garden:
- Care consists not only in the use of various composts (the use of ordinary manure is prohibited, since bulbous irises, after using it, begin to hurt or can completely wither away). But also in the use of mineral fertilizers and vitamins. Subcrusting with mineral fertilizers is mainly carried out 3 times during the period of plant growth. The first feeding is carried out during active growth with the addition of nitrogen, the second - at the stage when the buds are formed (nitrogen, potassium, phosphorus), and the final or last third feeding, 3 weeks after flowering (potassium, phosphorus). Nitrogen is not included in its composition, since there is no longer a need for plant growth. It is also good to sprinkle the iris beds with simple, wood ash every month. Water in the evening, carefully so that the water does not get on the flowers.
- Spray in time against various pests (from a bear, from a root mite, from a lilac caterpillar, from naked slugs), at least once a week. Control the plant so that it does not get sick and does not rot on the roots. If, nevertheless, rot appears, it urgently needs to be removed, and the root itself should be treated with a special solution (0.2% solution of potassium permanganate). Then the roots are dried well in the sun, and the soil is discarded. After rehabilitation, such irises bloom beautifully in the future, like ordinary healthy flowers.
Further, when leaving, you need not only to properly plant and grow bulbous irises, you need to properly preserve the iris bulb during frosty and cold winters in our middle lane.
Depending on the location of the bulbous irises, gardeners - breeders have established how to correctly select and correct the methods of sheltering the plant. Therefore, it can be assumed that the successful and comfortable wintering of bulbous irises is directly related to their subsequent growth and flowering.
In the middle lane, bulbous irises hibernate under a warm shelter made of peat or spruce branches, as well as any dry leaves. When spring comes, this shelter is removed in order to warm up the roots of the irises faster. If it happens that in winter the roots are still frozen (in the place of freezing, the roots become like porridge), the wound must be cleaned to a hard, healthy tissue, and the place itself is treated with ordinary brilliant green or potassium permanganate.
The most profitable planting of irises in the ground is wintering in the cold. Currently, some types of bulbous irises must be dug up after flowering, then warm them up and dry them thoroughly in the sun, while trying to keep the plant roots intact.
But still, if a gardener decides to buy bulbous irises in a flower shop, one cannot be 100% sure that the life cycle of the plant is not violated, and the temperature regime is preserved in winter dormancy (from + 40C to + 60C).
Therefore, it is recommended to keep the purchased bulbs in the cold or in the refrigerator at resting temperature. And only by observing the correct and correct care, you can count on a surprisingly beautiful and timely sunrise of garden irises. And subject to all the rules and regulations for planting, as well as caring for bulbous irises, the plant will thank you with a beautiful and long flowering.
Beautiful and surprisingly beautiful first spring flowers - bulbous irises. With a rich palette of various shades and colors, with the first spring mood. They are like the first snowdrops, like the first and extraordinary spring flowers, after a long and cold winter they instill in people: joy, happiness, luck, hope.
Therefore, the flowers of the bulbous iris, like ordinary, ordinary people, will always be healthy if they feel great care and love around them.
Workshop on growing irises on video: