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Currants are one of the healthiest garden berries. And yet, in order to get a rich harvest, you need to know how to plant currants, take care of them, and prepare them for winter. Armed with all the information you need, you can achieve excellent results.
- Types of currants
- Correct fit
- Currant care
- Top dressing and pruning
- Pest control
Types of currants
Breeders have bred many types and subspecies of currants. Modern hybrids have improved characteristics: they are resistant to diseases and pests, and are capable of producing a rich harvest.
The main types of currants:
Each species, in turn, is subdivided into several more varieties with individual characteristics. The most whimsical of the presented species are black currant varieties.
Juicy black currant berries have a sweet and sour taste. Red currant is distinguished by its unpretentiousness and high yield. White currant is also unpretentious, it belongs to late ripening varieties.
If you choose a good place for planting, then the currants will grow and bear fruit in one place for about 15 years. Non-shaded areas are suitable for this plant, if the bush is planted in the shade, the berries will be less sweet, this will also affect productivity. Currants love moisture, they are suitable for areas where there is a long stagnation of water.
This means that the groundwater must be located 1.5 meters from the surface of the earth. For planting, it is preferable to choose the autumn period. It is necessary that the plant has time to take root before spring.
Currant seedlings are of two types:
- annuals - low, with a well-developed root system
- biennial - have a more developed form
Experienced gardeners recommend opting for annual seedlings. When choosing seedlings, take into account the following points:
- healthy appearance
- well-developed fibrous root system
- moist roots
- flexible shoots of light gray color
- there are 2 or 4 shoots
For the seedling, a planting hole is required, the width of which is 40 cm, and the depth is not more than 40 cm. The seedling is planted at an inclination of 40 degrees, to a depth of about 8 cm. If the soil is sandy loam, you will need to put clay on the bottom. The thickness of the clay layer should be about 7 cm.
The soil is placed in the pit, which is pre-mixed with fertilizers. The procedure for planting a seedling is as follows:
- the seedling is placed in the prepared hole
- straighten the roots
- cover the soil, compact it
- mulch with manure or peat
If there are several bushes, it is required to maintain a distance between them. Up to 1.25 meters between bushes and up to 2.5 meters between rows.
Currants love moisture. Therefore, you need to ensure that the soil is always moist and loose. The soil will need to be loosened every three weeks. This is done carefully so as not to damage the roots, the optimal loosening depth is 6 - 8 cm.The procedure for caring for the plant includes the following steps:
- bushes need to be weeded periodically
- to retain moisture, the soil around the bush should be mulched
- currants must be watered (15 liters under a bush), especially young seedlings, with a lack of moisture, the berries can crumble, and the berries that are not crumbled will be very small
- spring frosts will damage the plant and negatively affect the harvest, in order to avoid this, on the eve of frosts, the bushes are wrapped with cloth, film or paper, and containers with water are placed under them, for large areas, smoking is suitable by making a fire
- so that the branches do not spread on the ground, a support should be built for them, it can be made from improvised means
Feeding is a special item in the care. The plant requires organic and inorganic fertilizers. With proper care, currants will begin to bear fruit 5 years after planting.
Top dressing and pruning
The first two years after planting, the currants can not be fed, since the fertilizer that was introduced into the pit during planting will be enough for it. From the third year, you need to fertilize the plant annually.
Every year they bring under the bush:
- compost (5 kg)
- superphosphate (20 g)
- potassium sulfate (20 g)
- Then the soil is loosened
In the spring, the bushes begin to actively develop, in order to help them, root top dressing is introduced. For its preparation, manure is bred - 1: 8 or bird droppings - 1:10. They form grooves and pour in fertilizer there at the rate of: 2 buckets under the bush. Then the grooves are sprinkled with earth and leveled. You can use ready-made dressings that are sold in stores.
The currants need to be trimmed. Branches are subject to deletion:
- old branches that are more than 5 years old
- damaged by insects
Removing weak and old branches will allow new healthy branches to grow in their place. Pruning affects the uniform formation of the berries and their flavor. Pruning is carried out in the spring, as soon as the snow melts, and the buds have not yet blossomed. Currants are susceptible to attack by the following pests: mites, aphids, powdery mildew. Currants must be protected from these insects and diseases.
Pests and diseases reduce yields and can even destroy the plant. Most often, aphids start on currants. To eliminate it, the branches of the plant are treated with soapy water. To eliminate parasites, you can prepare a solution from ash.
A bucket of water requires 300 grams of ash. In special cases, the bushes are treated with "karbofos".
It is not recommended to use chemicals on currants, this is done in rare cases. Kidney mite is the smallest insect that enters the kidney and infects it from the inside. The affected branches are cut and burned. With proper care of currants, a rich harvest of berries is ensured.
Video about the correct planting and caring for currants: