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The Cereal family consists of more than 750 genera, which include more than 11 thousand species. Even in the Arctic, you can find cereals, a list of the most common species and a botanical classification, the meaning of cereals will be given below.
- Cereals, summary and botanical classification
- Cereals Lists
- The history of cereals, their significance for humanity
Cereals, summary and botanical classification
The family of Cereals predominantly includes herbaceous annuals or perennials, although there are shrubs and even trees. All cultures are united by a common structure:
The stalks of cereal crops are hollow inside and consist of knees connected by swollen and therefore clearly visible internodes. Each of them has a baffle and the stem looks like a baffled hollow tube. Stems with such a structure are commonly called straws in botany.
In rare exceptions, the inside of the knee is filled with loose tissue, like sugarcane, sorghum, corn. In cereals, secondary roots are well developed, and the main root either stops growing early or stops growing after germination. The leaves of cereals are vaginal, the edges of the vagina are rarely closed.
The leaf plates are most often ribbon-like, narrow, sometimes folded in half or rolled up in a tube. The inflorescences can be different, but they are collected from miniature spikelets. Most often, the spikelets are folded:
- in panicles
- to the sultans
- in a simple ear
- in a spike-shaped panicle
- into a complex ear
The taxonomy of the family has repeatedly changed over the past century, then it was divided into 2, then into 12 subfamilies. For example, at one time the Prosovs belonged to the Tsentotekovs. Modern taxonomists have divided cereals into seven subfamilies:
- Feather grass
Below are lists of cereals belonging to the various subfamilies.
The subfamily Chloride includes:
- fingered pig
- Eleusis Korakan
- field vole
The following cereals belong to the Feather family subfamily:
- achnaterum brilliant
- beautiful feather grass
- chiy siberian
- achnaterum kosteroid
- bamboo leaf grate
- ordinary bamboo
- Kuril saza
- reviving leaf grate
- dendrocalamus giant
- black bamboo or black leaf grate
- leaf grate Bisse
Video about cereals:
The subfamily Bluegrass or Real cereals includes:
- sticking out white
Crops from the subfamily Prosovye:
- arundo reed
- sugar cane
The history of cereals, their significance for humanity
It is difficult to overestimate the importance of cereal crops in the history of mankind. They are common all over the planet, where there are no multi-meter eternal glaciers. Cereals grow to the boundaries of glaciers, including high-altitude ones. Savannahs and steppes are a real kingdom of cereal plants. The fruit of cereals, the caryopsis, is of great importance to humans. Its endosperm is the richest source of nutrients.
Therefore, the cultivation of cereals for human consumption has been confirmed by scientists for more than seven thousand years. Wheat cultivation has been a real engine of progress. It is with her that the invention of the wheel and the plow is associated.
It is believed that the ancient ancestor of this culture was wheatgrass. At the dawn of agriculture, people grew spelled or spelled wheat. Later, it was almost everywhere replaced by durum wheat. According to the antiquity of origin on the Eurasian continent, barley can compete with wheat, and on the American continent, corn was grown from cereals since ancient times, which became the engine of the Mayan culture.
Rye began to be grown by humans much later than wheat. Here, scientists assign primacy to the Slavic peoples, since rye gave a richer harvest in a temperate climate. A real breakthrough in history was the production of bread by people from ground grains of cereals. Thus, we can conclude that modern people owe their food well-being to plants from the Cereal family.